Aristotle as the father of logic was the first to develop a formal system for reasoning. Logic is the study of correct reasoning, sometimes reasoning is good, sometimes it is not good, people use logic to tell the difference and evaluate bits of reasoning as proper or improper; as the science of principles of correct reasoning, some situation may arise that will need immediate thought and action to correlate, in this scenario on a coffee table where a first gentleman takes his coffee and keels out, the second does the same and the third starts to be hesitant thus in deducing that two truths imply a third truth surely it will be wise if the third gentleman put his cup of coffee on hold, just like in the process of coming to a conclusion of who stole a cookie based on who was in the room at the time the cookie was stolen. All employees were asked to count the money in the drawer before taking over as the shifts changed, every day they did that until one day one complained to me that they other had not counted before leaving, imagine just two of them had to exchange shifts, I was so angry.
Me-“The issue is not to keep counting, noting shortage of money”
The employee-“Sister she did not count before leaving’
Me-“Who is stealing from who and why”
A couple of weeks down the line they stopped counting and nobody ever complaint about shortage of money in the drawer.
Logic is the science that evaluates arguments, a premise is a statement in an argument that provides reason or support for the conclusion that we make in the end of an argument, there can be one or many premises in a single argument, a conclusion is a statement in an argument that indicates what the arguer is trying to convince the reader or listener. Preferences, inferences and the grounds on which they are made to solidify the reasoning behind the decisions are all part of logical thinking. Identify a notion of logical ground, clarify it, show how it can be used to characterize various consequential relations based its soundness of mind then establish a sequence that can possibly follow suit. One evaluates arguments by assessing their quality that is how compelling it is on the basis of reasons given to support the conclusion. Evidence, rationale of opinions will enable a judgement on the validity and determine the kind of argument; there are two kinds’ deductive and non-deductive arguments.
A deductive argument begins with a statement that we believe to be true or false which we all call a premise, then we reason in a logical manner to arrive a conclusion.
1) All men are mortal, Joe is a man, Therefore Joe is mortal
2) Bachelors are unmarried men, Bill unmarried, Therefore, Bill is bachelor.
A non-deductive argument is an argument for which the premises are offered to provide probable but not conclusive support for its conclusions
1) Its cloudy today, so there’s a high probability that it will rain today